For the past few years, the fusion of biotechnology and nanotechnology has been a fascinating subject of study.
Nanomaterials are now employed in a wide range of biomedical applications, including medication administration, magnetic or fluorescent bioimaging, tissue engineering, tracing infections in sensitive organs, cancer treatment, and many more.
Each nanomaterial, on the other hand, interacts differently with each type of cell.
A broad arena of inquiry is the particular combinations of nanomaterials and cells with diverse form, size, and surface chemistry.
As a result, it’s critical to comprehend the mechanics behind all sorts of nanomaterial-cell interactions.
Cancer cells have been proven to take up gold nanorods in several investigations.
HER2-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer models are represented by the MCF-7 and SKBR-3 cancer cell lines, respectively.
Endocytosis, a process that occurs at the cell membrane’s surface, allows these cells to take upgold nanorods.
The efficacy of cellular uptake and targeted administration nanoparticles may be measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), while their location can be investigated using TEM -Transmission Electron Microscopy.
The interaction process of gold nanorods in breast cancer cell, MCF-7 and SKBR-3, has been studied.
Using the silver ion-assisted seed-mediated technique, more than 200 Au NRs with an average length and diameter of 36 and 12 nm were synthesized.
MCF-7 and SKBR-3 cells were then grown in a suitable medium and allowed to bind with various concentrations of Au NRs for 1 or 2 days.
For varied exposure times and concentrations, both kinds of cells showed a distinct pattern in cellular absorption of Au NRs.
Furthermore, TEM research revealed that from one to 48 hours after exposure, the Au NRs interacted with the cell membrane of both cancer cells. The Au NRs, on the other hand, penetrated the cell (i.e. absorbed) in the samples with higher quantities.
For the samples with concentrations of 25 and 75g/mL, however, the AuNRs penetrated the cell (i.e. internalised).
The samples with a concentration of 5g/mL were never absorbed. Furthermore, for the MCF-7 and SKBR-3 cells, the minimal exposure period for internalization was one hour and four hours, respectively.
Micropinocytosis, rather than receptor-mediated endocytosis, was the primary mechanism for Au NR cellular absorption.
These Au NRs-carrying macropinosomes also interacted with the cells’ lysosomes.
To sum up, the authors of this work looked at the interplay of Au NRs in two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and SKBR-3.
The form, size, and zeta potential of Au NRs demonstrated a variety of impacts on cancer cell viability and toxicity.
Furthermore, at varying concentrations and exposure durations, both cell types displayed varied patterns of cellular absorption for Au NRs.
For samples with lower NR concentrations or shorter exposure times, the Au NRs did not reach the cancer cells.
Micropinocytosis was also the primary method for cellular absorption.
These results will aid biomedical applications employing nanomaterials, such as tailored medication delivery, tracing, and bio-imaging.